Beliefsystems like Roman Catholicism have always had difficulty with incorporating scientific insights, which seemingly are contradicting religious doctrine. Giordano Bruno was burned at the stake, when he concluded, that the sun did not revolve around the earth, but the other way round. Galileo Galilei escaped this fate, but was isolated from contemporary scientists and researchers by house-arrest till his death. The small, protestant university in Leiden (the Netherlands) changellenged the Catholics, by inviting Galilei, to become a professor in the new Republic. It's a glimpse of the pressure, blackmail and silencing scientists and researchers felt in the Middle Ages and are feeiling even to this day. Most of the time two (or even more) interpretations live side by side, even if the data contradict each-other. Officially, calculated by theologians, our Earth (and mankind) was created around 4000 years (before Christ) and destroyed by the Flood 2000 years later. Noah and his kin repopulated the Earth succesfully, which led to our world now, being over 6000 year old. Archeologists and geologists have a completely different perspective. The earth came in to existence 4,5 billion years ago. The proto-types of modern man appeared 250.000 years ago. Neanderthal-men disappeared (by the hands modern man) and Homo Sapiens became dominant and conquered the world. First civilizations are dug up, who are 8 to 10.000 years old. One of them was the city of Ur, the city of Abraham, in Eufraat/Tigris delta. Abraham, also recognised as a Patriarch by the Muslims, left Sumeria, with his people and wandered, till he reached the Holy Land. 


The Bible is used by many as a history-book; in so far, the existence of cities, countries, palaces and temple-complexes have been proven, to be correct several times. Some places, like Jerusalem, Megiddo and Bethlehem, still exist. This gives a kind of legitimacy to Bible-stories. Many think that Jericho was brought down by the trumpets and horns of the Jews. A God-given miracle! But it seems much more plausible, that earthquakes destroyed Jericho. Digs show layer after layer of collapse, due to earthquakes and the rebuilding of the city of Jericho (10 times or even more). Almost all the centres of mankind in the area have been struck by earthquakes many times (Troy, Mycene, Crete, Alexandria and Jerusalem a.o.). Jerusalem was struck by one, at the moment Jesus died.

In the book of Exodus we find a description of the escape of the Israelites from the tiranny of the Pharaoh. A miraculous escape, when God's hands open the waters of the Red Sea. The Israelites escape, while the charriots of Egypt were destroyed by the waters. The refugees wandered through the dessert (including women, elderly, children, possessions and lifestock), till they arrived at Mount Sinai (in the Sinai-dessert), where the foundations of the Covenant with God were created, by means of the Ten Commandments. After a 40-year journey they reached the borders of the Promised Land.

Recently alternatives have been put forward. Researchers and archeologists claim, that Moses and the Israelites followed a different route and received the 10 Commandments on another mountain, not situated on the Sinai-peninsula, but in Saudi-Arabia!

What arguments for an alternative explanation do these (christian-)archeologists, like Paul Ryan use?

First of all, the Jews lived in an area called Gosen, in the North-Eastern delta of the Nile. They worked as slaves, to build Pharaonic cities, like Pi-Rameses, which was discovered about 30 years ago, in the Eastern delta. The Jews were supposed to flee out of Egypt, not into it, which would have happened if the made the crossing at the classical place. Fleeing to the North was impossible, because of the might of the Philistines. It seems logical, that the tribes headed for Midjan, to the south. Moses fled to this area after he had killed an Egyptian and feared punishment. He knew the route and the people from his former stay. Midjan is located on the Northern shores of Saudi-Arabia. The crossing must have happened across the Gulf of Aqaba. Divers have found several Egyptian charriot-wheels in the waters of the Gulf. Across the waters Ryan identified Mount Sinai, the Rock, split by Moses and remnants of a Jewish holy-site, with Egyptian-like artwork. Sensational is the discovery of a pillar, placed at the shore. The pillar was placed there by Salomon (!) in memory of the crossing. These miraculous findings cannot be chequed, because of the delicate political situation in the area, but if this story is true, another mysterious part of the Exodus would be explained. God showed the Jews the way, by a pillar of smoke at daytime and a fire at night. Ufo's? There could be a much simpler explanation: a volcano.

There is even a plausible candidate: the “Gabal-al-Lauz”, a volcano in Saudi-Arabia, near the Gulf of Aqaba: now dormant, but possibly active 3500 years ago.